The colonization of the two regions, west and center south, to be visited, extended over a long period of resistance from the inhabitants against domination. With several clashes, deaths and one of the last fighting of the state.
Kaingang Indians lived in this region, which constituted a dualistic society, divided into clan halves Kamé and Kairu. Belonging to the Jê linguistic family, they lived in the fields and forest regions of Araucária angustifolia, where they had pine nuts as their main source of subsistence.
The Kaingang territories comprised, besides the villages, large areas where they established camps for hunting, fishing and gathering expeditions. They made pari fishing traps with which they obtained a wide variety of fish.
The Guarani, the Tupi-Guarani language group, are divided into three subgroups: Mbyá, Nhandéva and Kaiová. They mutually identify and maintain kinship and affinity ties with distant villages, not limited to the national territory. Despite the wide range of their territory (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay) the sense of identity among the Guarani has been preserved through the maintenance of language and culture..
Before European colonization and the consequent loss of part of their territories, the Guarani were distributed from the coast extending to the subtropical forests of the plateau, to the Paraná river to the west. They settled their villages usually in rainforest regions, making clearings in the woods, using nearby areas for hunting, gathering and farming.
In cooking, besides the consumption of cold [tererê] or hot [mate] mate, we have the influence of these indigenous groups: food preparation with cassava, corn and pine nuts, such as porridge, mush and paçoca.
In vocabulary it is often the use of Guarani source words to designate names of native species of fruits, vegetables and animals. We can cite as examples: guabiroba, passion fruit, butia, capybara, jabuti, biguá, agouti. From Kaingang origin we have the names of municipalities such as: Goioerê, Candói, Xambrê and Verê.